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Vyacheslav Schwartz - Russian painter.


Vyacheslav Schwartz (1838-1869)

Vyacheslav Schwartz - Russian painter. One of the founders of the Russian historical and genre painting, addressed mainly to the themes of life 16-17 centuries. Vyacheslav Schwartz sought to convey the real situation of historical events reveal the uniqueness of the way of life and the national character of the Russian people of bygone eras, to give rich, semantic role in the imagery of landscape painting.

All his works Schwartz breaks with academic habit of portraying a "high" moments in history. His "scene" can inspire the viewer romantic reverence for the past only care merchandise - if disconnect from the "costume" side, they will, in fact, belong to genre painting.

Ivan the Terrible had killed their son's body


"The scene of the home life of the Russian Tsars (Chess Play)" 1865


"Treating Boyar (Prince Silver visiting Boyar Morozov)" 1865


"Ambassador Prince Vasili Kurbskii Shibanov before Ivan the Terrible" 1862


Palm Sunday in Moscow during the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich "1865


"Vernal train queen on a pilgrimage under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich" 1868.




"The messenger of the XVI century" in 1868.


"Patriarch Nikon in the New Jerusalem" 1867


Russian ambassador at the court of Roman Emperor 1866


In numerous drawings and watercolors of the artist is easily accomplished by step favorite mid-century social types to types of historic. Moreover - popular among the modern genre painter Schwarz scene "chess game" is transferred to them in the XVII century - and it turns out "scene from the domestic life of the Russian Tsars" ("Tsar Alexis plays chess").

In the last scene ethnographic precision and care with which Schwartz writes a pattern on a fabric tablecloth, carvings oven, chairs and postavtsa not prevent him to treat the story with poetic feeling and gentle humor (which is one cat paw touches the fallen figure). Humor and poetry, warming his historical "pictures", removed from their raid museum "uvrazhnosti." The combination of seriousness in the quest to capture on canvas or paper in the atmosphere of the past life of its tangible traces of this serious and explode a little parody "detached or alien" vision allows you to see behind the historical figure of the artist's way, peering into the distance centuries simultaneously with respect and smile.

In a serious approach, in reverence to nature in the broadest sense Schwartz - a man of his time: all his paintings are built on a meticulous study of the subject side and the accuracy of the reality as it is a pledge of historical truth. Are stories of contemporaries about how earnest carefully studied the artist Moscow architecture, as he wrote his historical compositions, using not only the sitter, but even mannequins ("Ivan the Terrible in his son's dead body"). Characteristically the opposite effect of the installation on the documentary - a little curious, but revealing: it turned out to be the creator Schwartz stable iconography of Ivan the Terrible. He proposed in the web "Ivan the Terrible in the body he had killed his son" (1861), physical type had so convincingly that different artists throughout the second half of the XIX century were guided by him as "Portrait" and transferred to his compositions, considering the historical authenticity.

With this picture Schwartz started his career. Although the ability to draw revealed in the future painter in his childhood, he chose the profession immediately. After the end of the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum, he entered the Academy of Fine Arts in the Department of battle painting, but also attends lectures NIKostomarov at St. Petersburg University, and there, on the historical-philological faculty, studying Arabic. It took some time to two passions - history and painting - merged and became a profession.

Almost Historically painter Schwartz travels to Europe and there is improved in skill. The set of field studies carried out during European travels, he will serve to create large compositions - in Russia, where he returned in 1864 and comes into the latter, the most fruitful period of his creative life. Comes a strong recognition - after the "Palm Sunday with Alexis" make it an academician, and participation in the exhibition in 1868 with a series of historical genres and types marked by the election of an honorary voluntary partakers of the Academy.

This happy period lasted five years - Schwartz died suddenly, survived his thirties. Talent painter, draftsman, illustrator and decorator (in his sketches and costumes was AK Tolstoy drama "The Death of Ivan the Terrible") does not have time to implement in full force. It seemed that he created the genre system on it and broke. The general opinion about the artist expressed Kramskoy after his death: "Was Schwartz, began a furrow, and very deep, true GUESS towards its historically: he died, and everything went again, in all directions. As if it was not human ! The merits of his lesson to anybody, nor the leadership. "

Archaeology is not pessimism is justified. Paintings Schwartz stands out for its "special" on the background of historical painting of the 1860s had continued as if "over the head" of the next generation. He first managed to bridge the gap between academic performance standards of historical composition and democratic principles create home full-scale paintings, managed to bring the past right up to the modern viewer - reducing it to a past life, but a life, what he saw poetically. Russian painting genius Surikov needed to again, on a different level to break the entanglement of the historical domestic and staying within the boundaries of a realistic system, purely pictorial means to restore the historical distance between the viewer and the picture of the event. But experience Surikov was the only one of its kind - while Schwartz creativity can be considered the starting point of the path, which subsequently led to stylization AP Ryabushkina and SV Ivanov, a refined retrospectivism miriskusnikov. He opened a historical painting that line, which in the long run was the most viable.

G. Elshevskaya hundred anniversaries. Art calendar for 1988. M .: Soviet

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